UPI’s Glorious Triumph: Digitization Waves in India 

In the heart of India’s digital revolution, UPI stands out as the ultimate game-changer. 

Imagine strolling through a bustling market where cash and coins are a thing of the past, replaced by a quick tap on your smartphone. This futuristic vision is now our reality, bringing convenience, security, and inclusivity to everyone’s fingertips. UPI’s rise is more than just a tech upgrade; it’s about empowering millions and revolutionizing daily transactions. 

Join us as we explore how UPI has woven itself into the fabric of India’s financial ecosystem, sparking a new era of digital payments and driving an unstoppable wave of digitization. 

What is UPI? 

UPI, known as Unified Payments Interface, is an advanced payment system revolutionizing transactions in India. Developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), UPI enables seamless and instant transfers between bank accounts via a mobile application.  

By replacing conventional methods, such as cash, cheques, or card swipes, UPI simplifies financial transactions. Users can effortlessly send and receive money, make bill payments, and authorize transactions within a single app, enhancing speed, security, and convenience in the financial landscape. 

Event Details 
Pilot Launch Conducted by NPCI 21 member banks participated 
Date of Launch 11th April, 2016 
Location of Pilot Launch Mumbai 
Launch Official Commenced from 25th August 2016 onwards 
UPI Apps Upload on Google Play Store Start Commenced from August 25, 2016 onwards 

The Launch of NPCI 

The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) started in 2008 to create a strong payment and settlement system in India. NPCI alike an umbrella for all retail payments in India, and it’s regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). 

In 2016, NPCI introduced the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), a game-changing app for smartphones that makes bank transactions between people super easy. UPI is a real-time payment system for peer-to-peer bank transfers. It means you don’t have to keep entering your bank details or other sensitive information every time, making banking secure and straightforward. 

The UPI pilot system launched on April 11, 2016, and in August 2016, banks across India were uploading their interfaces. UPI uses existing systems like the Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) and the Aadhaar Enabled Payment System (AEPS) to make sure everything runs smoothly. 

Since its launch, UPI has blown up the digital payments scene in India, growing more than seven times. In 2021, people transacted a mind-blowing $940 billion over UPI, and in 2022, the average monthly transaction count was over 6 billion. 

UPI cuts down on the need for cash transactions and can help reduce the unbanked population in India. It’s packed with features like checking account balances, transaction histories, sending and receiving money, and checking account details. 

Why was UPI Launched? 

So, back in 2016, the NPCI rolled out UPI to shake things up in the payments scene. Here’s why:

Easy Digital Payments 

UPI made life simpler by letting you do real-time money transfers with just a Virtual Payment Address (VPA). No more memorizing bank details for every little transaction.  

Financial Fairness for All 

UPI wasn’t just for the rich kids. It gave everyone, even the underdog, a shot at hassle-free money moves. It’s like bringing the unbanked into the cool kid’s club, offering savings accounts, loans, and insurance. 

Bye-Bye Cash 

UPI swooped in to break up India’s love affair with cash and make things more transparent. It’s all about building a world where everyone’s accountable for their money. Even incidents like pickpocketing, causing the loss of cash and other valuables, can be curbed to a greater extent. 

Everything Works Together 

UPI plays nice with different banks and other apps, making life easier for all of us. It’s like having one universal remote for all your gadgets. 

Fintech Fun Times 

UPI lit a fire under the fintech scene, sparking new ideas and job opportunities. It keeps evolving with cool features like UPI2.0, offering even more ways to handle your cash. 

UPI 2.0 Features Details 
Overdraft (OD) Facility Link your overdraft accounts to UPI. Make instant transactions with all OD perks. Access OD accounts digitally through UPI. 
One Time Mandate Pre-approve transactions with a one-time block feature. Perfect for committing money in advance. Easy for both shops and individuals to use. 
Invoice in the Inbox Check out invoices from merchants from paying. Verify invoice details and their source for security. Simplify payments after verification. 
Signed Intent & QR Verify merchants using QR codes for extra security. Get notifications to confirm legit UPI merchants. Speed-up transactions without app passcodes. 

In a nutshell, UPI came to flip the script on how India does payments, making it fairer, less cash-focused, and more connected. And guess what? It is working like a charm. 

Key Features of UPI 

Cross-Border Payments: Global Reach 

At the G20 digital economy working group meeting in Lucknow on February 13, 2023, Union Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw shared some exciting news. He mentioned that India has signed MoUs with 13 countries eager to adopt the UPI interface for digital payments. He also highlighted that Singapore has successfully completed its UPI integration. 

UPI is going global, transforming digital payments worldwide. Now used in countries like France, Bhutan, Nepal, Oman, the UAE, Vietnam, Greece, Singapore, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, the UK, and across Europe, UPI simplifies transactions for NRIs and cuts transfer costs.  

UPI’s adoption in these countries boosts digital payments, especially for NRIs. Its strong infrastructure ensures smooth integration, better efficiency, and top-notch security. 

UPI’s global expansion simplifies transactions, promotes financial inclusion, and gives Indian fintech companies a competitive edge. Overall, UPI’s global reach is revolutionizing the digital payments landscape. 

Nandan Nilakeni, Chairman of Infosys Technologies, spoke about UPI at the World Trade Center (Mumbai) in 2022. The closest he came was saying, “India, and specifically the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), is showing the world how to combine regulation and innovation.” He mentioned the world marveling at India’s fintech revolution with Aadhaar and UPI but added, “This is just a part of the journey.” 

UPI 123Pay: Empowering Feature Phone Users 

UPI 123Pay is a game-changer for feature phone users in India, letting them do secure digital transactions without needing a smartphone. It offers various options like IVR (Interactive Voice Response), feature phone apps, missed call-based transactions, and proximity sound-based payments with Tonetag. Users can easily set up UPI ID by dialing *99#, selecting their bank, entering debit card details, and setting up a UPI PIN. If you don’t have an internet connection, then you can also make a UPI payment; check out this video to find out how:

UPI 123Pay supports multiple languages like Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, and Bengali, with more to come. It allows transactions up to Rs. 1 lakh per day and Rs. 5,000 per transaction.  

While it’s boosting financial freedom, it continues to experience challenges, that the NPCI is addressing: voice input issues due to background noise and accents, limited features compared to smartphones, and the need for more awareness among less tech-savvy users.  

Additionally, the risk of fraud requires enhanced security measures and user education. Despite these hurdles, UPI 123Pay aims to bring millions into the digital payments ecosystem, leveraging technologies like sound-based payments to make UPI accessible to all and paving the way for an inclusive, cashless economy. 

UPI Autopay: Simplifying Recurring Payments 

UPI Autopay automates recurring payments using Unified Payments Interface (UPI). This feature allows users to set up one-time authentication for automatic payments, making the process of recurring payments seamless and hassle-free. 

How does it work? 

  1. Select the subscription plan to automate. 
  1. Provide a one-time approval to the merchant. 
  1. Fill in details like the subscription start date, merchant name, and debit frequency. 
  1. Approve the transaction via UPI PIN, a one-time activity. 
  1. Payments are automatically deducted without further user actions. 
  1. Modify, pause, or revoke mandates anytime via the UPI app. 

UPI One World: Simplifying Payments for Foreign Travelers 

UPI One World is a Prepaid Payment Instrument (PPI) integrated with India’s Unified Payment Interface (UPI), designed specifically for inbound travelers from G20 countries. It allows foreign nationals and NRIs to easily make transactions at various merchants across India using their smartphones. 

How to use UPI One World? 

  1. Travelers can get UPI One World from authorized issuers at locations approved for currency exchange operations. 
  1. Present a passport and valid visa to complete the KYC process. 
  1. Download the issuer’s designated app to access UPI One World’s wallet. 
  1. Load funds into the wallet by exchanging foreign currency or through other approved payment instruments. 
  1. Any merchant location in India with UPI support can scan the merchant’s QR code and transfer funds from the UPI One World app. 
  1. Unused balances can be encashed in foreign currency or transferred back to the original source following foreign exchange regulations

Challenges Facing UPI in India 

Security and Fraud Prevention 

UPI has strong security, but fraud and unauthorized transactions are still a big worry. Cybercriminals can find loopholes or trick people into giving up sensitive info. In 2023, UPI fraud cases went up by 15%, according to the Financial Express, showing the need for even better security measures. 


UPI’s infrastructure works well in India but needs major upgrades to handle a global user base. Expanding UPI globally means tackling international regulations and compliance. The ADB brief mentions that the UPI One World initiative has to navigate these complexities to make cross-border transactions possible. 

Awareness and Adoption 

While many people use UPI, there are still some, especially in rural areas, where a lot don’t know how it works. The Economic Time reports that northeast India has the lowest UPI penetration (0-10%) due to network issues, slow internet, and lack of user support. 

Connectivity and Infrastructure 

UPI needs stable internet and good infrastructure. In remote areas with poor internet, users struggle to access UPI services, leading to transaction problems. The ADB brief notes that initiatives like Digital India and BharatNet are crucial for improving internet and smartphone use, which helps UPI succeed. 

Technical Glitches 

UPI can experience technical problems like app crashes, transaction failures, and delayed notifications, affecting the user experience. Despite the efforts to improve stability, occasional disruptions still occur. 

Transactional Limits 

UPI has limits on transaction amount and numbers, which can be a problem for some businesses and individuals needing a higher volume. Some experts suggest that these limits should be revised to meet diverse payment needs. 

Merchant Acceptance 

Not all merchants, especially smaller ones accept UPI, due to lack of infrastructure and knowledge, mostly in rural areas. A Economic Times report says that over 80% of PhonePe’s active users are from smaller cities, including the need for more merchant adoption in these areas. 

New Fees on UPI App Transactions 

1. PhonePe  

Starting April 1st, 2023, PhonePe has to pay a 0.15% service charge to the bank when customers reload their PhonePe wallet with around Rs. 2000. However, customers do not pay extra fees for wallet recharges used for UPI transactions on the app. 

2. Google Pay

For transactions over Rs. 2000 made through Google Pay’s PPI wallet, merchants must pay a 1.1% interchange fee to their bank. This applies when a customers pay using Google Pay wallet and the merchant receives payment through another PPI wallet. Google Pay also charges a Rs. 2- 3 (based on payment-type) convenience fee for mobile recharges of Rs. 100 or more, whether paid through UPI or cash on their platform. 

3. Paytm 

Paytm as a PPI issuer, pays a 0.15% service charge to the bank when customers load more than Rs. 2,000 in their Paytm wallet. Customers do not face any additional charges and can use their Paytm services seamlessly. 

4. Amazon Pay 

Amazon Pay is subject to a 0.15% service charge when customers add over Rs. 2,000 to their Amazon Pay wallet, payable to the bank. 

Note: These fees have been introduced by UPI apps to align with other payment platforms and help sustain their services as the UPI ecosystem expands rapidly in India. 

Advancements in UPI for Enhanced Digital Payments 

Credit Line on UPI 

  • UPI now offers a feature where users can access credit directly through their UPI apps. This collaboration with banks and fintech companies allows users to link their existing digital credit lines from major banks. 
  • It provides easy access to credit for making purchases or transferring funds, all within familiar UPI interface, without needing separate platforms. 
  • Banks can now extend credit to a broader customer base through UPI, enhancing convenience for users. 

UPI Lite X 

  • Introduced by NPCI, UPI Lite X enables offline payments using NFC technology. 
  • Users can make payments without needing an active internet connection by tapping their NFC-enabled phones on contactless readers. 
  • Transactions initiate via NFC and settle once devices reconnect to the network, ensuring faster transaction times. 
  • This feature is particularly useful in low-connectivity areas like underground stations or remote locations where traditional UPI transactions may not work reliably. 

UPI Tap & Pay 

  • UPI Tap & Pay allows users to make payments by tapping their phones on contactless readers using NFC-enabled cards linked to their UPI ID & QR code. 
  • NFC cards are available from partner banks, offering a secure and convenient payment method similar to contactless card payments. 
  • The feature aims to boost digital payment adoption among merchants who may lack traditional point-of-sale terminals. 

Hello! UPI 

  • NPCI’s Hello! UPI introduces conversational payments using voice commands on UPI apps, phone calls, and IoT devices. 
  • Users can initiate and complete transactions in English or Hindi, with plans to expand to regional languages, catering to diverse user preferences. 
  • It enhances payment accessibility for users less familiar with traditional digital methods or those preferring voice-based interactions. 
  • Leveraging AI and natural language processing ensures secure transaction processing. 

BillPay Connect 

  • Bharat BillPay’s BillPay Connect simplifies bill payments across India with a unified national number. 
  • Users can fetch and pay bills via messaging apps like WhatsApp, Telegram, or through a simple missed call, making bill payments accessible to a broader audience, including those in rural areas. 
  • This feature streamlines the payment process by eliminating the need for multiple biller codes or account numbers. 

Game-Changing UPI: Fueling India’s Mutual Fund Boom 

UPI has totally flipped the game for investing in mutual funds in India, making it super easy and hassle-free. Just in January 2024, UPI smashed records with over 12.2 billion transactions valued at Rs. 18.41 lakh crore marking a whopping 41.72% jump from the previous year. 

And it gets even better with features like UPI AutoPay, making recurring investments a breeze. By August 2021, many big banks and financial institutions in India had set up a lot of AutoPay services for their customers. SBI, the largest public sector bank in the country, had about 6,60,000 AutoPay setups. BoB, another major public sector bank, had around 2,04,000 setups. Paytm Payments Bank, a top digital payments bank, had about 1,86,000 setups for its customers. 

These numbers show that more and more people in India are using Autopay services, which  help make paying bills easier and on time. 

On December 7, 2022, the RBI had also announced a cool upgrade allowing single-block multiple debit transactions on UPI, so you can lock funds for specific purposes and release them whenever you need. 

We at Bullsmart are big-time supporters of the Digital India Initiative, which is why, to support this revolutionary asset called UPI, we at Bullsmart provide an option to invest in mutual funds via UPI apps. You just have to enter your UPI ID and voila, the scene is sorted! 

Investors are loving UPI’s slick interface and convenience, driving major growth in India’s mutual fund scene. UPI transactions skyrocketed to 55% of all digital transactions by volume in 2020-21, up from just 23% in 2018-19, with each deal averaging Rs. 1,849. In 2023, the total UPI action hit Rs. 182 lakh crores, marking a 59% surge in transactions and a 45% leap in value compared to 2022. 

UPI’s Future: Next Level Payments 

According to a report published by NDTV Profit, UPI is set to blow up in India, with daily transactions projected to hit over 2 billion by 2030, making up more than 90% of all digital payments. By 2026, UPI transactions will grow 4-times, grabbing 75% of India’s digital payment scene, and reach 1 billion daily by 2026-27, up from 1 million in 2016. 

UPI will handle everything from credit cards and prepaid wallets to credit lines and mandates. Expect tokenized cards, offline payments, e-RUPI, digital currency, and even cross-border transactions and toll payments. It’s super user-friendly, boosting financial inclusion and letting even the smallest businesses go digital with no transaction fees. 

UPI is going global, expanding to France, UAE, and Sri Lanka, with 35+ countries interested. With $10 billion spent by Indians on overseas travel in late 2022, UPI’s global growth looks strong. But it’ll face competition from Visa and Mastercard, who dominate 80% of the global market.  

Buckle up! The future of UPI is gonna be wild! 🚀 


Does UPI work worldwide? 

UPI isn’t global yet, but it’s making waves. As of now, it’s accepted in Singapore, UAE, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Greece, and many other countries. India’s pushing to spread UPI globally, especially in countries with massive populations of Indian-origin residents. 

Which country developed the UPI? 

UPI was created in India by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). NPCI, formed by the RBI and the Indian Banks Association (IBA), handles retail payments and settlement systems in India. 

Who is leading UPI in India? 

NPCI leads UPI in India. It’s the organization behind the scenes, ensuring UPI works smoothly across the country, supported by RBI and IBA. 

How does UPI make money in India? 

UPI itself doesn’t make money since it’s a free-service by NPCI, a non-profit. But banks and service providers can make money through: 
1. Merchant Discount Rate (MDR): Charging merchants a small fee for UPI payments. 
2. Cross-Selling: Offering loans, credit cards, insurance, e.t.c., to UPI users. 
3. Transaction Float: Earning interest on money temporarily held during transactions. 
4. Data Monetization: Using transaction data for insights and revenue. 


The Latest Blogs

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Download Bullsmart Mobile App